Kodi ndingamwe mankhwala otha ntchito?

Kodi ndingamwe mankhwala otha ntchito?

Tinene nthawi yomweyo: mankhwala omwe atha ntchito akuyenerabe kuwachotsa. Mwachitsanzo, bungwe la US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), limalimbikitsa mwamphamvu kuti Musayesedwe Kugwiritsa Ntchito Mankhwala Otha Nthawi Yatha. Ndipo pali zifukwa zingapo zazikulu zopangira malingaliro otere.

Choncho, m’mankhwala ena, mabakiteriya amatha kuchulukirachulukira pakapita nthawi. Ena amakhala dummies: mumamwa iwo, kuyembekezera kuchiritsidwa, ndipo matenda amapita patsogolo. Enanso amasintha mankhwalawo n’kukhala poizoni.

Zotsutsa za FDA zikumveka zomveka. Komabe, nkhani ya mankhwala otha ntchito siyolunjika monga momwe ikuwonekera. Ndi chifukwa chake.

Chifukwa chiyani mankhwala otha ntchito siwoyipa kwenikweni

Choyamba, tiyeni tione tsiku lotha ntchito. Ino ndi nthawi yomwe Madeti Otha Kugwiritsa Ntchito Mankhwala, Kodi Mankhwala Otha Ntchito Akadali Otetezeka Kumwa? , pamene kampani yopanga mankhwala yomwe inatulutsa mankhwala enaake imatsimikizira chitetezo chake ndi mphamvu zake. Koma tanthauzo la nthawi ya nthawi imeneyi ndi chinthu chokayikitsa kwambiri.

Nthawi ya alumali nthawi zambiri imafotokozedwa motere. Atatulutsa mankhwala ena, wopanga amakonza mawonekedwe ake, kuphatikiza kapangidwe kake ndi kapangidwe kazinthu zogwira ntchito, ndiyeno amayika mankhwalawo pa alumali. Patatha chaka chimodzi, mapangidwe a mankhwalawa amawunikidwanso ndipo mapeto amapangidwa ponena za mphamvu yake. Kusanthula kumabwerezedwa patapita zaka ziwiri. Ndi zina zotero.

Vuto ndi ili: tiyerekeze kuti mankhwalawa akhala pa alumali kwa zaka zitatu. Sichingagulitsidwe popanda tsiku lotha ntchito. Madeti, Mafunso ndi Mayankho. Komabe, ndizovuta kwa kampani yopanga mankhwala kuchedwetsa kuyamba kwa malonda. Chifukwa chake, wopanga akuwonetsa nthawi yomwe yatsimikiziridwa kale ngati tsiku lotha ntchito, zaka 3 zomwezo, ndipo ndi chikumbumtima choyera amatumiza mankhwalawa ku ma pharmacies.

M'malo mwake, mankhwalawa amatha kukhala othandiza kwazaka zopitilira zitatu. Koma opanga samafufuzanso izi Nthano ya Madeti Otha Kugwiritsa Ntchito Mankhwala.

Makampani opanga mankhwala ndi okhawo omwe ali ndi ndalama zopangira kafukufuku wanthawi yayitali pakugwira ntchito kwa mankhwalawa. Komabe, alibe ndalama zowalimbikitsa kuchita izi.Kodi Mankhwala Amathadi? ...

Lee Cantrell Director wa San Diego Department of California Poison Control Center

Komabe, madipatimenti omwe ali ndi chilimbikitso chandalama kuti afufuze moyo wa alumali weniweni wamankhwala akadalipo. Izi, mwachitsanzo, US Department of Defense. Mu 1986, idayambitsa Shelf-Life Extension Programme (SLEP Expiration Dating Extension) ndi FDA kuti ipulumutse pamtengo wokonzanso mankhwala osungidwa m'masitolo owopsa.

Pulogalamuyi imabala zipatso pafupipafupi. Mwachitsanzo, mu 2006, SLEP idayesa mankhwala osiyanasiyana 122 osungidwa m'mikhalidwe yabwino. Ambiri aiwo adakulitsa Kukhazikika Kwawo Kwazinthu Zamankhwala Zomwe Zawonjezeredwa kupyola Madeti Otsitsidwa Olembedwa Pazaka zinayi.

Ndi mankhwala ati omwe atha ntchito angathe ndipo sangamwe

Tikugogomezeranso: ngakhale zili pamwambazi, ndikofunikira kumvera malingaliro a FDA ndikukonzanso mwachangu zida zoyambira zothandizira ngati pakufunika. Izi si ndalama kwambiri, koma ndithudi njira wathanzi.

Tsiku lotha ntchito ndi tsiku limene udindo wa kagwiritsidwe ntchito ndi chitetezo cha mankhwala umadutsa kuchokera kwa opanga kupita kwa ogula. ...

Barbara Stark Baxter MD, Columbia University College of Surgery and Therapy, New York

Koma bwanji ngati, mwachitsanzo, muli ndi mutu, ndipo paracetamol yokha yatha kwa miyezi ingapo? Kapena choipitsitsa: inu kapena munthu wina wapafupi muli ndi vuto lalikulu la ziwengo (edema ya Quincke yomweyi), ndipo palinso jekeseni wa syringe-auto-injector ndi adrenaline, koma tsiku lotha ntchito ... Bayikeni kapena ayi? Tiyeni tiganizire.

Ndi mankhwala ati omwe atha ntchito ndi osatetezeka

Maphunziro azachipatala sanachitike kuti atsimikizire kuopsa kwa mankhwala otha ntchito. Komabe, akatswiri mu nkhokwe yazidziwitso ya Drugs.com amagwiritsa ntchito nzeru kuti alimbikitse Madeti Otha Kugwiritsa Ntchito Mankhwala, Kodi Mankhwala Otha Ntchito Akadali Otetezeka Kumwa? MUSAGWIRITSE NTCHITO mankhwala otsatirawa tsiku lotha ntchito litatha.

  1. Insulin . Amagwiritsidwa ntchito powongolera kuchuluka kwa shuga m'magazi a shuga. Mankhwalawa amatha kusintha kapangidwe kake ka mankhwala ndipo osathandiza.
  2. Oral nitroglycerin . Chithandizo chodziwika bwino cha angina pectoris. Pambuyo potsegula, nitroglycerin imataya mphamvu yake mwachangu.
  3. Kukonzekera kwachilengedwe . Gulu ili, makamaka, limaphatikizapo katemera, mankhwala a magazi, immunoglobulins, toxoids. Zomwe zimagwira ntchito zimawonongekanso mofulumira.
  4. Maantibayotiki ochokera ku gulu la tetracyclines . Malinga ndi malipoti ena, pambuyo pa tsiku lotha ntchito, amatha kupanga metabolite yapoizoni. Kodi Ndi Masiku Otsutsana Ogwiritsa Ntchito Mankhwala, Kodi Akutanthauza Chilichonse? funso, komabe, ndi bwino kuti asafunefune choonadi, kuika thanzi lawo pachiswe.
  5. Maantibayotiki mu mawonekedwe a kuyimitsidwa . Pambuyo pa tsiku lotha ntchito, amatha kukhala opanda ntchito.
  6. Madontho a m'maso, opopera amphuno ndi mankhwala ena okhala ndi zoteteza . Pakapita nthawi, zoteteza zimawonongeka, zomwe zikutanthauza kuti mabakiteriya amatha kuchulukitsa mu yankho.
  7. Mankhwala amtundu wa jakisoni . Simuyenera kuyika nawo pachiwopsezo, ngakhale zomwe zili mu syringe sizinasinthe mawonekedwe awo. Ndipo ndikofunikira kukana jakisoni ngati yankho likhala lamtambo, losinthika, kapena madontho akuwoneka mmenemo.
  8. Zokonzekera payekhapayekha . Mankhwalawa sali ovomerezeka ndi FDA, koma Compounding ndi FDA: Mafunso ndi Mayankho nthawi zina amafunika. Katswiri wamankhwala amatha kuphatikiza zosakaniza zingapo kuti apange mankhwala omwe amagwirizana ndi zosowa za wodwala aliyense. Palibe vuto sayenera kumwa mankhwala ophatikizana pambuyo pa tsiku lotha ntchito lomwe dokotala wakumana nalo, chifukwa zotsatira zake zimakhala zosayembekezereka.
  9. Mankhwala aliwonse omwe amawoneka okalamba komanso oipitsidwa . Ngati mapiritsi akuphwanyidwa kapena fungo losasangalatsa, yankho lakhala lamtambo, ndipo mafuta odzola kapena zonona zauma, musadye kapena kuzipaka nokha. Izi ndizoletsedwa.

Ndi mankhwala ati omwe amatha kugwiritsidwa ntchito ngati kuli kofunikira

Mndandanda wa mankhwala otere ndi ochuluka kwambiri. Chifukwa chake, mu kafukufuku wa 2012 Stability of Active Ingredients in Long ‑ Expired Prescription Medications, asayansi adasanthula mankhwala asanu ndi atatu okhala ndi zosakaniza 15 zogwira ntchito, nthawi ya alumali yomwe idatha zaka 28-40 zapitazo.

Tapeza kuti ena mwa mankhwalawa, ngakhale patatha zaka 40 kuchokera tsiku lawo lopangidwa, amagwirabe ntchito mokwanira.

Lee Cantrell

Mwina pali mankhwala enanso okhalitsa ngati amenewa. Koma tingolemba zinthu zomwe zimagwira ntchito ndi kukonzekera komwe kuli deta yokhazikitsidwa mwasayansi.

  1. Paracetamol . Ngakhale atachedwa kwa zaka zambiri, chogwiritsira ntchito chimakhalabe ndi mphamvu ndi 99%. Ofufuza, komabe, sangatsimikizire kuti mapiritsi onse otha ntchito adzakhala othandiza mofanana. Choncho ngati piritsi loyamba silikugwira ntchito, musamwe lachiwiri.
  2. Aspirin . Osati zamatsenga ngati paracetamol: zaka 10 pambuyo pa tsiku lotha ntchito, aspirin imataya 99% ya mphamvu yake. Koma ngati zaka 1-2 zokha zadutsa, ndipo palibe ululu wina wothandizira (koma chofunika kwambiri!), Mungayesere kuchiritsa ndi mapiritsi. Mwa njira, pali kuthyolako kwa moyo komwe kumakupatsani mwayi wozindikira mankhwala owonongeka mosadziwika bwino: Aspirin wopanda pake amaphwanya zigawo zake ndikuyamba fungo losasangalatsa. asidi asidi. Ndikopanda phindu kumwa mankhwala otere.
  3. Kodiine . Mosamalitsa mankhwala mankhwala ndi antitussive kanthu. Ngakhale itachedwa kwambiri, imakhalabe yogwira ntchito ndi 90%.
  4. Antihistamines, makamaka loratadine-based . Men's Health lipoti 16 Mankhwala Oyenera Kumwa kapena Kutaya ku nduna Yanu Yamankhwala kuti loratadine idapulumuka bwino pakuyezetsa kupsinjika: idatenthedwa kwa maola 6 pa 70 ° C ndikutenthedwa ndi dzuwa kwa maola 24. Pambuyo pakuyesa koopsa kotere, 99% yazinthu zomwe zimagwira zidapulumuka. Izi zikutanthauza kuti loratadine ikhoza kukhalabe yothandiza pakapita nthawi.
  5. EpiPens . Awa ndi epinephrine autoinjectors okwera mtengo omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito pochiza matenda oopsa. Kafukufuku wina wa Epinephrine Concentrations mu EpiPens Pambuyo pa Tsiku Lomaliza Anapeza kuti zaka 4 pambuyo pa tsiku lotha ntchito, EpiPens anali 84% ogwira ntchito. Ichi sichojambula kapena carte blanche chomwe chimachotsa kufunika kogula chojambulira chatsopano kuti chilowe m'malo chomwe chinatha. Ndi chidziwitso chabe: mwadzidzidzi, EpiPen yomwe yatha ntchito ndiyabwino kuposa kalikonse.

Pambuyo potchula EpiPen, chinthu chofunikira chiyenera kunenedwa: ndizololedwa kuyesa tsiku lotha ntchito ya mankhwala pokhapokha ngati moyo wanu sudalira mankhwalawa. Ngati mumayamikirabe thanzi lanu, sinthani chida chanu choyamba chothandizira panthawi yake.