Miyambo 5 yopenga ya Chaka Chatsopano ya mayiko akale omwe simunawadziwe

Miyambo 5 yopenga ya Chaka Chatsopano ya mayiko akale omwe simunawadziwe

1. Akita

Mikango ndi maluwa pachipata cha Ishtar ku Babulo ku Pergamon Museum ku Berlin. Chithunzi: Josep Renalias / Wikimedia Commons

Anthu okhala ku Babeloni, komanso Sumer, Akkad ndi Asuri nthawi ina adakondwerera Chaka Chatsopano m'dzinja, koma pambuyo pake tchuthicho chinaimitsidwa mpaka masika. Ku Babulo wa zaka chikwi chachiwiri BC, Akita anayamba kukondwerera tsiku loyamba la mwezi wa Nisani (March-April) ndipo G. Suggs anali wokondwa. Ukulu wa Babulo. Mbiri yakale yachitukuko cha Mesopotamiya masiku 11 motsatizana, monga tchuthi cha Chaka Chatsopano.

Akitu adagwirizanitsidwa ndi G. Suggs imodzi yosangalatsa. Ukulu wa Babulo. Mbiri yakale yachitukuko cha Mesopotamiya. Chifaniziro cha Marduk, mulungu wapamwamba kwambiri m'zipembedzo za ku Babulo, adatengedwa kuchokera kukachisi wamkulu ndipo panthawi ya tchuthi adatengedwa ndi sitima kupita ku nyumba ya Akita. Kachisi ameneyu ali kunja kwa mpanda wa mzindawo. Zikuoneka kuti ngakhale Mulungu ndi wothandiza nthawi zina kutuluka mu mzinda.

Chifanizo cha mulungu Nabu, mwana wa Marduk, chopezeka mu mzinda wa Kalhu. Ziboliboli za Marduk mwiniwake sizinapezeke; wapulumuka pazitsitsimutso zokha. Chithunzi: Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin / Wikimedia Commons

Pamutu pa gululo panali mfumu ya Babulo. Fanoli litabweretsedwa pamalo ake, mkulu wa ansembe anakwapula mfumuyo ndi chikwapu, kuikokera m’makutu, ndi kuimenya mbama kumaso. Ankakhulupirira kuti ngati panthawi imodzimodziyo mfumuyo sikanatha kukana kufuula ndi kulira, chaka chidzakhala chosangalala.

Ngati wansembe sanali wachangu kwambiri ndipo mtsogoleri wa dziko sanavutike, ndiye kuti ulamuliro wake unatha. Chifukwa mulungu Marduk sakonda anthu onyada ndi anthu omwe ali ndi ululu waukulu.

Kwa anthu wamba, tchuthicho chinali chosangalatsa kwambiri G. Suggs. Ukulu wa Babulo. Mbiri yakale yachitukuko cha Mesopotamiya. Anatsegula nyengo yofesa ndi yolima, ndipo adagwirizananso ndi mwambo wotuluka kunja kwa tawuni, kuyendera malo awo ndi kusangalala ndi mpweya wabwino.

2. Upet-Renpet

Chithunzi cha Amentet ndi Ra m'manda a QV66 a Mfumukazi Nefertari Merenmuth. Chithunzi: Zenodot Verlagsgesellschaft mbH / Wikimedia Commons

Upet-Renpet, uwu ndi mwezi woyamba wa chaka pa kalendala ya Aigupto akale. Kunkakondwerera pamene Sirius, nyenyezi yowala kwambiri m’thambo la usiku, anayamba kuwuka pamwamba pa mtsinje wa Nailo pambuyo pa masiku 70 pamene sanali kuonekera. Pakatikati mwa mwezi wa July, mtsinjewu umasefukira. Ndipo pa nthawiyi n’kuti nthawi yaulimi kwa Aiguputo.

Upet-Renpet, phwando la kubala, ndi Kodi Wepet Renpet ndi Chiyani? / Study.com mawu awa ali ngati kutsegulira kwa chaka.

Aigupto adakondwerera Upet-Renpet ndi chikondwerero chachikulu, pomwe amayenera kumwa mowa wambiri. Zimenezi n’zogwirizana ndi nthano ina yakale, E. Hornung. Chinsinsi cha Egypt: Zokhudza Kumadzulo.

Kamodzi mulungu wa dzuwa Ra adadzuka pa phazi lolakwika ndipo adaganiza zowononga anthu. Kungoti anthu anakhala a makhalidwe oipa, anasiya kumumvera, ndipo panafunika kuwalanga.

Ra anatumiza mwana wake wamkazi, mulungu wamkazi wa nkhondo ndi kubwezera, dzina lake Sekhmet, kuti achite izi. N’zokayikitsa kuti aliyense angalole ganizo lakuti munthu wokhoza kulenga zipululu mwa kupuma sangathe kulimbana ndi mtundu wina wa anthu. Sekhmet anasanduka mkango waukulu ndipo anayamba kuwononga anthu mochuluka kotero kuti tsiku lotsatira pambuyo pa kuukira kwake koyamba, opulumukawo anayamba kufa kale chifukwa E. Hornung kwenikweni anamira. Chinsinsi cha Egypt: Zokhudza Kumadzulo m'magazi a anzawo omwe adaphedwa dzulo lake.

Bas-relief of Sekhmet mukachisi ku Kom-Ombo. Chithunzi: Gérard Ducher / Wikimedia Commons

Ataona kupha mwana wake wamkaziyo, Ra anaganiza kuti anali wokondwa pang’ono ndipo anam’pempha kuti asiye. Sekhmet, yemwe adadziwika ndi khalidwe lake laukali, sanamvere. Ra anazindikira kuti sakanatha kupirira. Paupangiri wa mulungu wanzeru, Thoth, adapempha mwana wake wamkazi kuti apume kupha ndi kuzizira.

Ra adatsanulira mowa wake wofiira, womwe umafanana ndi magazi okondedwa kwambiri ndi mulungu wamkazi, mpaka Sekhmet adamwa mitsuko zikwi zingapo. Ataledzera ndikulephera kukhalabe woongoka, Sekhmet adauza anthu omwe adatsalawo kuti: Zikhale choncho, tulukani pano. Ndinakhululukira aliyense, ndipo ndinagona.

Kotero umunthu unapulumutsidwa ndipo anali ndi chifukwa china chothokozera Ra wanzeru ndi wachifundo. Kuyambira pamenepo, polemekeza mwambowu, Aigupto akale adachita chikondwerero cha Upet-Renpet, Zikondwerero ku Egypt Yakale / World History Encyclopedia, pamodzi ndi kuvina, nyimbo, maphwando komanso, ndithudi, zopereka zambiri. Ndipo anapatsana zithumwa zokhala ndi mutu wa mkango waukazi ndi zamatsenga zolembedwa pa gumbwa kuti zikope RH Wilkinson. Milungu Yathunthu ndi Amulungu Aakazi a Aigupto Akale sangakonzekere Sekhmet yobwezera mchaka chatsopano ndi zinyengo zake zonyansa. Mwachitsanzo, musatumize mliri.

3. Chunji

Kukondwerera Chaka Chatsopano cha China ku Malaysia. Chithunzi: Flying Pharmacist / Wikimedia Commons

Chunjie, Chikondwerero cha Spring, kapena Chaka Chatsopano cha China, ndi chimodzi mwa zikondwerero zakale kwambiri zomwe zimakondwerera mpaka lero. Amakhulupirira kuti adachokera zaka 3,000 zapitazo, nthawi ya Shang Dynasty.

Chaka Chatsopano cha China nthawi zonse chimakondwerera kwambiri, mokweza kwambiri. Anthu okhala m'dzikoli amazimitsa zozimitsa moto, kuwotcha zofukiza, kumenya ziboliboli, makamaka, amapanga phokoso lochuluka momwe angathere. Mwambowu uli ndi malingaliro achindunji, ngakhale anthano, a H. Yuan. The Magic Lotus Lantern ndi Nkhani Zina zochokera ku Han Chinese.

Kalekale ku China kunali chinjoka choopsa chokhetsa magazi chotchedwa Nian (mawu achi China akuti 年 amatanthauza chaka). Chaka chilichonse ankauluka kuzungulira midzi yonse ya m’deralo, n’kumadya ziweto, tirigu ndi zinthu zina zabwino. Makamaka ana. Anthu okhala ku China anapereka nsembe kwa chinjokacho kunja kwa zitseko zawo kuti asangalale nacho.

Koma tsiku lina m’mudzi wina kunabwera nkhalamba yodabwitsa imene inati: “Ndipirire zimenezi!” Ndipo analonjeza anthu a m’mudzimo kuti athetsa nkhaniyo ndi chilombocho. Anthu am'deralo, mwachibadwa, ankamuona kuti ndi wachilendo, chifukwa chinjoka chonse chimafufuza zikhulupiriro zachi China, makilomita angapo kutalika, zimawoneka zochititsa chidwi kuposa agogo ena. Koma mkulu uja anayatsa nyali, anayatsa zofukizira, anayamba kumenya gongo, ndipo Nian atafika, anadabwa kwambiri ndi phokoso moti anaganiza kuthawa tchimo.

Patapita nthawi, Nian anamva njala ndipo anadziika pangozi yobwerera kumudzi. Wowombola wachikulireyo adamupatsanso moni ndi zozimitsa moto, koma nthawi iyi chinjokacho sichinachite mantha. Nian atatsala pang'ono kumeza mdala uja, koma adapempha kuti amuvule kaye chifukwa kudya anthu nsanza sikukoma. Chinjokacho chinavomereza, ndipo nkhalambayo inavula zovala zake zomwe zinavumbulutsa zovala zamkati zofiira.

Dragon Dancers ku Taiwan. Chithunzi: 蔡 滄 龍 / Wikimedia Commons

Nanny anali ndi malo ofooka, chromatophobia. Chinjokacho chidadana ndi chofiira. Ndi kulira anawulukira kutali. Ndipo mdani wake adaphunzitsa anthu aku China kuwotcha nyali zofiira ndi zozimitsa moto, kumenya zingwe ndi kuvala zovala zofiira kuti awopseza Nanny m'tsogolomu. Dzina la mkuluyu anali Hongjun Laozu, anali nthano yopeka yakuti The Origin of Lunar New Year and Legend of Nian / Ancient Origins Taoist monk.

Ankavala Hongjun mwachilengedwe osati zingwe za Chinsinsi cha Victoria, koma akabudula achi China Kodi achi China akale amavala zovala zamkati pansi pa masiketi / madiresi awo? / Quora dubi-kun. Zofiira basi.

Ndi chifukwa cha nkhaniyi kuti Chaka Chatsopano cha China ndi chikondwerero cha mithunzi yonse yofiira. Anthu amakongoletsa nyumba ndi nyali zofiira, kupatsa okondedwa awo maenvulopu a mapepala ofiira ndi zokhumba ndi ndalama, amaphimba mazenera ndi nsalu zofiira, kulemba zikomo pa pepala lofiira, ndi kuvala zovala zofiira. Zimagwirabe ntchito: ngakhale pali ziwerengero zambiri za Nanny zomwe ovina achita m'misewu yachikondwerero, chinjokacho sichinawonekenso.

4. Samhain

Kulosera ndi kuponya maapulo pa Samhain. Kujambula ndi Daniel MacLeese, 1833

Samhain, chikondwerero cha Aselote akale, kukumbukira P. Monaghan. The Encyclopedia of Celtic Mythology and Folklore ndi mapeto a zokolola ndi chiyambi cha theka lamdima la chaka, pamene kuzizira ndi zoopsa. Kukondwerera usiku wa October 31 mpaka November 1. Kuchokera pa tchuthi ichi, monga mukumvetsetsa, Halowini inachitika zaka mazana ambiri pambuyo pake.

Samhain idayamba kukondwerera m'nthawi ya Neolithic, ndipo idalumikizidwa ndi moto wamoto ndi nsembe. Kunena zowona, olemba mbiri akadatsutsabe R. Hutton. Masiteshoni a Dzuwa: Mbiri ya Chaka Chamwambo ku Britain, kaya chimatengedwa ngati Chaka Chatsopano cha Celtic, chifukwa Imbolc (February 1), Beltane (May 1) kapena Lugnasad (August 1) akanathanso kukhala. Koma Samhain ayenera kuti anali wofunika kwambiri kuposa onsewo.

Pa usiku uwu, mizimu ya makolo ndi mitundu yonse ya mizimu yoipa inayendayenda padziko lapansi. Woyamba ankayenera kudyetsedwa patebulo lachikondwerero, ndipo wachiwiri anayenera kuopa chitsulo ndi mchere. Apo ayi, onse awiri adzakuchitirani inu moyipa kwambiri. Panthawi imeneyi, kunalinso mwambo wochita miyambo yokhazika mtima pansi wakufa ndi kunena nthano za makolo usiku kuti amvetsetse kuti sanaiwale. Komanso kuchita maula osiyanasiyana, chifukwa mizimu ingathandize kuyang'ana zam'tsogolo.

A Celt adayesa P. Monaghan usiku wa November 1. The Encyclopedia of Celtic Mythology and Folklore amavala mochititsa mantha momwe angathere. Osachepera, tembenuzani zovala zanu mkati. Ngati muli ndi mwayi, akufa adzadzitengera okha ndipo sadzakhumudwa.

Amayiwo anasonkhana m’khamu la anthu, natenga chigaza cha kavalo pandodo n’kuyenda nacho m’midzi. Mwambowu unkatchedwa Gray Horse. Anthu amene anabwera pa kavalo ameneyu anayenera kulidyetsa limodzi ndi amene amamutsogolera.

Zokongoletsera za Chaka Chatsopano cha Celtic. Kujambula: Rhŷn Williams / Wikimedia Commons

Kupanda kutero, oimbawo anayamba kunyoza eni nyumba, ndi ndime, ndipo adayenera kuwayankha chimodzimodzi. Anyamata amene anayenda ndi kavalo anavala zovala za akazi, ndi atsikana, amuna.

Koma kusema nyali yotchuka ya dzungu ya Jack si mwambo wakale wotere. Zowunikira zoyamba zofanana ndi masks zidayambitsidwa ndi R. Hutton. Masiteshoni a Dzuwa: Mbiri Yakale Yamwambo ku Britain yopangidwa kuchokera ku mpiru, rutabagas kapena beets waudzu m'zaka za zana la 19.

5. Saturnalia

Saturnalia. Kujambula ndi Antoine-Francois Callet, 1783

Kwa nthawi yaitali, Aroma akale ankakondwerera Chaka Chatsopano pa March 1. Komabe, Julius Caesar, amene anayamba kulamulira, anayambitsa yakeyake, kalendala ya Julian, mmene kuŵerengera kwa masiku kunayambira pa January 1. Anayamba kukondwerera pa Disembala 17, kuti asadzizunze ndi chiyembekezo chowawa. Zikondwerero kuyambira pa 17 mpaka 23 zinkatchedwa Saturnalia, polemekeza mulungu wotchedwa Saturn, woyera woteteza zaulimi. Pa nthawiyi, ntchito zonse zapafamu zinali kutha ndipo anthu anali akupumula.

Pa Saturnalia, Aroma ankapatsana mphatso, kumwa komanso kusangalala. Ena mwa mphatso anali S. Blake. Martial's Natural History: The and and Pliny's Encyclopedia / Arethusa piggy banks, zisa, zotokosera mano, zipewa, mipeni yosakira, nkhwangwa, nyali zosiyanasiyana, mipira, mafuta onunkhira, mapaipi, nkhumba zamoyo, soseji, zinkhwe, matebulo, makapu, spoons, zovala, zifanizo. , masks ndi mabuku. Olemera ankatha kupereka akapolo kapena nyama zachilendo monga mikango. Zinkaonedwa ngati mawonekedwe abwino osati kungopanga mphatso, komanso kulumikiza ndakatulo yanu yayifupi kwa iyo.

Wolemba ndakatulo wotchuka Catullus mwanjira ina adapeza R. Ellis. Ndemanga pa Catullus ndi mndandanda wa ndakatulo zoipa za wolemba ndakatulo woipitsitsa wa nthawi zonse kuchokera kwa bwenzi, ndiye nthabwala ya Aroma.

Kutchova njuga, kumene sikunali kunyansidwa m’nthaŵi zachibadwa, kunali kololedwa pa Saturnalia. Anthu okondwererawo anasankhanso Tacitus. The Annals of the King and Queen of the festival from the guest by lot, and their orders like Ponyeni izi m'madzi ozizira! kapena Kuvula maliseche ndikuyimba! zinayenera kuchitidwa mosakayikira.

Janus ndi Moiraes a Luca Giordano, 1682-1685. Zambiri kuchokera Palazzo Medici-Riccardi

Pambuyo pa Saturnalia, pa Januware 1, SJ Green idakondwerera. Ovid, Fasti 1: Tsiku Lofotokozera za mulungu wankhope ziwiri Janus, pamene zokhumba zonse, malinga ndi Aroma, zidakwaniritsidwa. Anthu anapatsana nkhuyu ndi uchi napatsana mau abwino. Ndipo iwo anabweretsa maswiti ndi ndalama ku kachisi kwa Janus kuti amusangalatse, monga iye ankachitira patronized mu chiyambi chatsopano.

Koma tsiku limenelo silinali tsiku lopuma. Aroma ankanena kuti ntchito yocheperapo iyenera kuchitidwa, popeza kusagwira ntchito kunali ngati chizindikiro choipa kwa chaka chonse.